Triennial Haftarah for B’har (-B’hukotai) I: Isaiah 24:2-15

I’ve been choosing a set of triennial haftarot for use in our congregation. Often, as this week, they’re the ones that have been hypothesized as having been used in classical Eretz Yisrael. (The hypotheses are based on ancient piyyutim and other evidence.) I also often compose my own translation and I’m pretty happy with how this one came out, so am posting it here:

ב וְהָיָ֤ה כָעָם֙ כַּכֹּהֵ֔ן כַּעֶ֨בֶד֙ כַּֽאדֹנָ֔יו כַּשִּׁפְחָ֖ה כַּגְּבִרְתָּ֑הּ כַּקּוֹנֶה֙ כַּמּוֹכֵ֔ר כַּמַּלְוֶה֙ כַּלּוֶֹ֔ה כַּנֹּשֶׁ֕ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר נֹשֶׁ֥א בֽוֹ: ג הִבּ֧וֹק ׀ תִּבּ֛וֹק הָאָ֖רֶץ וְהִבּ֣וֹז ׀ תִּבּ֑וֹז כִּ֣י יי֔ דִּבֶּ֖ר אֶת־הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה: ד אָֽבְלָ֤ה נָֽבְלָה֙ הָאָ֔רֶץ אֻמְלְלָ֥ה נָֽבְלָ֖ה תֵּבֵ֑ל אֻמְלָ֖לוּ מְר֥וֹם עַם־הָאָֽרֶץ: ה וְהָאָ֥רֶץ חָֽנְפָ֖ה תַּ֣חַת יֹֽשְׁבֶ֑יהָ כִּֽי־עָֽבְר֤וּ תוֹרֹת֙ חָ֣לְפוּ חֹ֔ק הֵפֵ֖רוּ בְּרִ֥ית עוֹלָֽם: ו עַל־כֵּ֗ן אָלָה֙ אָ֣כְלָה אֶ֔רֶץ וַיֶּאְשְׁמ֖וּ י֣שְׁבֵי בָ֑הּ עַל־כֵּ֗ן חָרוּ֙ י֣שְׁבֵי אֶ֔רֶץ וְנִשְׁאַ֥ר אֱנ֖וֹשׁ מִזְעָֽר: ז אָבַ֥ל תִּיר֖וֹשׁ אֻמְלְלָה־גָ֑פֶן נֶֽאֶנְח֖וּ כָּל־שִׂמְחֵי־לֵֽב: ח שָׁבַת֙ מְשׂ֣וֹשׂ תֻּפִּ֔ים חָדַ֖ל שְׁא֣וֹן עַלִּיזִ֑ים שָׁבַ֖ת מְשׂ֥וֹשׂ כִּנּֽוֹר: ט בַּשִּׁ֖יר לֹ֣א יִשְׁתּוּ־יָ֑יִן יֵמַ֥ר שֵׁכָ֖ר לְשֹׁתָֽיו: י נִשְׁבְּרָ֖ה קִרְיַת־תֹּ֑הוּ סֻגַּ֥ר כָּל־בַּ֖יִת מִבּֽוֹא: יא צְוָחָ֥ה עַל־הַיַּ֖יִן בַּֽחוּצ֑וֹת עָֽרְבָה֙ כָּל־שִׂמְחָ֔ה גָּלָ֖ה מְשׂ֥וֹשׂ הָאָֽרֶץ: יב נִשְׁאָ֥ר בָּעִ֖יר שַׁמָּ֑ה וּשְׁאִיָּ֖ה יֻכַּת־שָֽׁעַר: יג כִּי־כֹ֥ה יִֽהְיֶ֛ה בְּקֶ֥רֶב הָאָ֖רֶץ בְּת֣וֹךְ הָֽעַמִּ֑ים כְּנֹ֣קֶף זַ֔יִת כְּעוֹלֵלֹ֖ת אִם־כָּלָ֥ה בָצִֽיר: יד הֵ֛מָּה יִשְׂא֥וּ קוֹלָ֖ם יָרֹ֑נּוּ בִּגְא֣וֹן יי֔ צָֽהֲל֖וּ מִיָּֽם: טו עַל־כֵּ֥ן בָּֽאֻרִ֖ים כַּבְּד֣וּ יי֑ בְּאִיֵּ֣י הַיָּ֔ם שֵׁ֥ם יי֖ אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:

2. As the people will be, so will be the priest; as the slave, so his master; as the slave, so her mistress; as the buyer, so the seller; as the lender, so the borrower; as the dun, so the one he duns.  3. The land will be depleted – depleted! It will be despoiled – despoiled! – for JUSTICE has spoken this word.  4. The land faints, it fades; the earth fails, it fades; the exalted of the land’s people fade away.  5. For the land was defiled under its inhabitants, for they transgressed teachings, transposed law, broke the eternal covenant.  6. And so a curse has consumed the land, its inhabitants have been found guilty; and so the land’s inhabitants have flared out, few people are left.  7. The fresh wine fails, the vine fades; all who had joyous hearts sigh.  8. Drumming celebration is done, gay clamor has ceased, harp celebration is done.  9. Wine won’t be drunk over song; beer will be bitter to its drinkers.  10. Empty-town is broken; every house closed to entry.  11. In the streets, shrieking over wine, all joy has vanished, the land’s celebration is exiled.  12. What’s left in the city is waste, the gate being struck with destruction.  13. For thus will it be within the land, among the peoples: like the beaten-out olive, like gleanings when the grape harvest’s done.  14. These will lift their voices; they’ll sing out!  They give a shout from the western sea!  15. Therefore, from the light’s shining, give glory to GOD; from the sea-lands, to the name of ONE ETERNAL, Israel’s God!

I know the times call for seriousness, but its almost Purim, so, with apologies to those pillars of Jewish (Bnai Mitzvah) music, the Village People, I present:

Young Jew, there’s no need to feel down.
I said, young Jew, pick yourself off the ground.
I said, young Jew, here in your home town
Now it’s Purim, so be happy.

No Jew does it all by themselves.
I said, young Jew, put your pride on the shelf,
And just go there, to the nearest shul.
I’m sure they can help you stay cool.

CHORUS:
It’s fun to ask yourself
Y – M – I – Here?
y-m-i-here-graphic
It’s fun to ask yourself Y-M-I-Here?
Instead of doing my homework, paying my bills,
I’m doing this silly dance; Gives me the chills!

Hey, Jew! After three thousand years
that were laden with happY-ness and tears
Now I wonder how did we last so long?
I can’t tell you in this one song!

Haman, you’re the wrong paradigm,
I said, Haman, j’accuse you of a crime
And though Haman thought “no Jews” would be neat,
I say: We survived so let’s eat!

[ Chorus]

If God wants me to go somewhere
It should show me how I’m s’posed to get there
Give me a new GPS, don’t forget
‘Cuz mine fell into the toilet

Is there a good reason that I
am a human, not a duck or a fly
Or a prune-filled triangular pie
Or some nothing? Why, oh why?!

[Chorus]

Hafez

I’ve been enjoying reading Hafez: Translations and Interpretations of the Ghazals by Geoffrey Squires. Here’s a little something that resulted:

Hafez peeks from
the pile on
my mother’s cedar chest –
+++red.

Ancient vintage,
intoxicating ferment
hidden in
+++white
+++pages

under pillows.

hafez-on-the-cedar-chest

Two related poems

Here are two of my poems, one with a pitcher and one with a vase:

1.

I am the pitcher
You are the water
I am drinking

I am water
I am nothing
More than water

Pouring
Pouring
Pouring

 

2.

In praise of the opening,
the turning,
the facing.

A vase
shatters
and water stands
vase-shaped.

Without a face,
you faced me,
stringing the space
between faces:
vibrating.

My translation of Sahaki by Shaul Tchernichovsky:

Laugh, laugh about the dreams
I, the dreamer, lay in view.
Laugh that I believe in humanity,
that I still believe in you.

That my soul still yearns for freedom,
I’ve not sold it for a calf of gold.
That in humanity I still believe –
the human spirit, a spirit bold!

That spirit will cast off senseless shackles,
and raise us up to highest heights.
The worker will not die of hunger:
Bread and freedom – each soul’s right.

Laugh that I believe in friendship,
I believe I’ll find a heart again-
a heart whose hopes are also my hopes,
that feels joy and also pain.

I believe, still, in the future,
Though it’s far off, nonetheless
It will come and then each nation
every nation with peace will bless.

My nation then will blossom, too
and our land will see the sight:
A generation with no shackles,
eye-to-eye they’ll see the light.

Living, loving, working, making,
a generation truly alive;
not in the future, not in heaven –
spirit-life will not suffice.

Then a poet will sing a new song,
whose heart to beauty will be awake.
For that young man, from o’er my grave
let them pick flowers for a bouquet.

 

Hakkafot for Hoshana Rabba

Here’s a piyyut for Hoshana Rabba (the 7th day of Sukkot) based on a series of piyuttim I found in a Yemenite Siddur.

הוֹשַׁעְנָא hoshana
[save us!]

God who is One and whose name is One
in memory of Abraham who was the one and only Jew
You who uttered “keep” and “remember” in one utterance
So your world may be one

שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל, יְיָ אֶלֹהֵֽינוּ, יְיָ אֶחָד

2nd hakafah
הוֹשַׁעְנָא hoshana
[save us!]

God who gave us two tablets of covenant
who created two people, male and female, in your image
who caused two nations to be descended from Abraham
whose heaven and earth are two witnesses to remind us

שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל, יְיָ אֶלֹהֵֽינוּ, יְיָ אֶחָד

3rd hakafah
הוֹשַׁעְנָא hoshana
[save us!]

God whom the angels proclaim three times holy
whom we proclaim three times holy
for the three fathers of our people
for Torah, Prophets, and Writing, the three parts of Tanah

שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל, יְיָ אֶלֹהֵֽינוּ, יְיָ אֶחָד

4th hakafah
הוֹשַׁעְנָא hoshana
[save us!]

for the four letters of your name
for the four seasons of the year
in memory of the four mothers of our people
You whom we praise with four species on Sukkot

שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל, יְיָ אֶלֹהֵֽינוּ, יְיָ אֶחָד
5th hakafah
הוֹשַׁעְנָא hoshana
[save us!]

for the five books of the Torah
for the five scrolls of the Writings
for the five names of the soul (nefesh, ruah, n’shamah, y’hidah, hayah)
for the five angels who appeared to Hagar

שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל, יְיָ אֶלֹהֵֽינוּ, יְיָ אֶחָד

6th hakafah
הוֹשַׁעְנָא hoshana
[save us!]

You who gave us six days of creation
and places us in the middle of six directions
whose seraphim have six wings
for the six Orders of the Mishnah

שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל, יְיָ אֶלֹהֵֽינוּ, יְיָ אֶחָד

7th hakafah
הוֹשַׁעְנָא hoshana
[save us!]

You to whom the seventh day is consecrated
on the seventh day of Sukkot
in memory of the Abraham’s peace treaty of seven sheep
in memory of Joseph who saw seven years of plenty

שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל, יְיָ אֶלֹהֵֽינוּ, יְיָ אֶחָד

My Recollection of Revelation
Rabbi Jeremy Schwartz

When it was time for the Jewish people to receive the Torah, Moses led them out to Mount Sinai, and had them stand all around the mountain as he climbed the mountain. The mountain and the sky above was filled with fog and smoke, so that the people couldn’t see a thing. It was dark and no Torah came. The people looked around and saw that in the circle around Mount Sinai, there was an empty space. In fact, there were two empty spaces. Someone was missing. I don’t know who it was. Maybe it was a grandmother who had stayed behind to change a diaper, and wasn’t sure that it was appropriate to go directly from that to the Revelation of God’s Torah, and so was nervously hanging back a bit. Well, Moses came down and found that grandmother, or whomever it was, and brought her to her place in the circle. And Moses stood next to her. Now, when they took their spots in the circle, suddenly, as if someone had plugged in the plug at an amusement park, the whole mountain lit up and, indeed, it lifted into the air above their heads, as it is written “they stood beneath the mountain – vayityatsvu betakhtit hahar.” The fog and smoke filled the space under the mountain as well, but as they began to look around and see each others’ faces, they also noticed that the fog was beginning to condense and clarify. They saw that it was condensing and clarifying into letters. A great rolling mist of letters. And they saw the letters of Torah, of Talmud, they saw the letters of midrash and of Maimonides and of the Jewish poets of medieval Spain. They saw the letters of the words we, here, speak on a Shabbat morning in discussing the verses of the Torah…. For it is written, “the entire people saw the voices – vekhol ha’am ro’im et hakolot.” And as the people watched, this great tumble and mist of letters, of voices, rose up from under the mountain and ascended up to heaven. And out of the rising letters came a new Voice. It was a Voice that was at once booming and terrifying, but also, miraculously, as comforting as the voice of the person you love, as quiet as your own thoughts. And the Voice spoke these words, “I am the Eternal, your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, ….” And the people heard God speak the ten words, the ten commandments, through to their last word, “lere’ekha – to your neighbor.”

SOME OF THE SOURCES THAT HELPED ME REMEMBER, IN ADDITION TO EXODUS 20:

STAND ALL AROUND THE MOUNTAIN
Targum Yonatan Exodus 19:12

ותתחם ית עמא ויקומון חזור חזור לטורא ….
Make the People a border and let them stand all around the mountain….

SOMEONE WAS MISSING
Midrash Bereshit Rabbah. Genesis 70:8-9 (Parashat Vayetse)

[Commenting on Genesis 29:1-3:
א וַיִּשָּׂא יַעֲקֹב רַגְלָיו וַיֵּלֶךְ אַרְצָה בְנֵי-קֶדֶם: ב וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה בְאֵר בַּשָּׂדֶה וְהִנֵּה-שָׁם שְׁלשָׁה עֶדְרֵי-צֹאן רֹבְצִים עָלֶיהָ כִּי מִן-הַבְּאֵר הַהִוא יַשְׁקוּ הָעֲדָרִים וְהָאֶבֶן גְּדֹלָה עַל-פִּי הַבְּאֵר: ג וְנֶאֶסְפוּ-שָׁמָּה כָל-הָעֲדָרִים וְגָלֲלוּ אֶת-הָאֶבֶן מֵעַל פִּי הַבְּאֵר וְהִשְׁקוּ אֶת-הַצֹּאן וְהֵשִׁיבוּ אֶת-הָאֶבֶן עַל-פִּי הַבְּאֵר לִמְקֹמָהּ:
Jacob lifted up his legs and went to the land of the people of the east. And he saw and lo a well in the field and lo three flocks of sheep crouching by it, for out of that well they would water the flocks, but the stone was large on the mouth of the well. And all the flocks gathered there, and they rolled the stone from the mouth of the well, and watered the sheep, and returned the stone to the mouth of the well, to its place.]

ד”א וירא והנה באר בשדה, זה בית הכנסת, והנה שם שלשה עדרי צאן, אלו שלשה קרואים, כי מן הבאר וגו’, שמשם היו שומעים את התורה, והאבן גדולה, זה יצר הרע, ונאספו שמה כל העדרים, זה הצבור, וגללו את האבן, שמשם היו שומעין את התורה, והשיבו את האבן וגו’, שכיון שהם יוצאים להם יצר הרע חוזר למקומו.
Another thing: “He saw and lo a well in the field”: This is the synagogue. “And lo there were three flocks of sheep there”: These are the three called [to the Torah]. “For out of that well, etc.”: for from there they would hear the Torah. “But the stone was large”: This is the yetser hara. “And all the flocks gathered there”: This is the community. “And they rolled the stone”: for from there they would hear the Torah. “And returned the stone, etc.”: for as soon as they leave, the yetser hara returns to its place.

ט ר’ יוחנן פתר לה בסיני, וירא והנה באר זה סיני, והנה שם שלשה, כהנים לוים וישראלים, כי מן הבאר ההיא, שמשם שמעו עשרת הדברות, והאבן גדולה זו שכינה, ונאספו שמה כל העדרים, ר’ שמעון בן יהודה איש כפר עכו אמר משום ר’ שמואל שאילו היו ישראל חסרים עוד אחד לא היו מקבלים את התורה, וגללו את האבן, שמשם היו שומעים את הקול ושמעו עשרת הדברות, והשיבו את האבן )שמות כ( אתם ראיתם כי מן השמים דברתי וגו’.
9. Rabbi Yohanan interpreted it as being about Sinai. “He saw and lo a well”: This is Sinai. “And lo there were three”: Kohanim, Levites and Israelites. “For out of that well”: for from there they heard the Ten Utterances. “But the stone was large”: This is Shechinah, the Divine Presence. “And all the flocks gathered there”: Rabbi Shim’on ben Yehudah, a man from the village of Acco, said in the name of Rabbi Shmuel: If Israel had been missing even a single person, they wouldn’t have received the Torah. “And they rolled the stone”: for from there they would hear the Voice and they heard the Ten Utterances. “And returned the stone”: “You saw that I spoke out of the heavens, etc.” (Exodus 20:19)

Similarly, Mekhilta on Exodus 19:11 (see above):
לעיני כל העם מלמד שאם היו חסרים עד אחד אינו כדאי לקבל.
“In the sight of the entire People” teaches that if there were missing even one, it would not have sufficed to receive [the Torah].

SEE EACH OTHER’S FACES
Talmud Bavli Berahot 30a
(on prayer)
עומד במזרח ־ מחזיר פניו למערב, במערב ־ מחזיר פניו למזרח, בדרום ־ מחזיר פניו לצפון, בצפון ־ מחזיר פניו לדרוםֹ נמצאו כל ישראל מכוונין את לבם למקום אחד
In the east, turn your face to the west; in the west, turn your face to the east; in the south, turn your face to the north; in the north, turn your face to the south. So you find all Israel to be directing their hearts to one place — one Maqom

Martin Buber. I and Thou.(Beginning of part 3)
The extended lines of relation meet in the eternal Thou.

THEY SAW THE LETTERS OF TORAH, OF TALMUD, … OF THE WORDS WE, HERE, SPEAK
Kli Yakar (R. Ephraim of Luntschitz, 1550-1619) on Exodus 20:15

… כל דבור ודבור שיצא מפי הקב”ה, מיד נתגשם אותו דבור והיה בו כל כך ממשות עד שהיו רואין באויר כל האותיות פורחות וכאילו היה הכל כתוב לפניהם, וראיה לזה ממה שנאמר (תהלים לג ו) בדבר ה’ שמים נעשו וגו. הרי שכל דבור שיוצא מפי הקב”ה בורא בריאה חדשה ….
Each and every utterance that came out of the Holy Blessed One’s mouth, that utterance immediately became concretized and was so very real that they saw all the letters flying in the air, and it was as if it was all written in front of them. And the proof of this is what is said (Psalms 33:6) “By the utterance of the ETERNAL the heavens were made,” etc. Indeed every utterance that proceeds from the Holy Blessed One’s mouth creates a new creation.

Midrash Sh’mot Rabbah 47:1
בשעה שנגלה הקב”ה בסיני ליתן תורה לישראל אמרה למשה על הסדר מקרא ומשנה תלמוד ואגדה, שנאמר (שמות כ) וידבר אלהים את כל הדברים האלה, אפילו מה שהתלמיד שואל לרב אמר הקב”ה למשה באותה שעה
At the time that the Holy Blessed One was revealed at Sinai, to give Torah to Israel, God communicated it to Mosheh in order: Scripture, Mishnah, Talmud, and Aggadah, as it is said (Exodus 20:1): “God spoke all these utterances.” Even what the student asks the teacher, the Holy Blessed One communicated to Mosheh at that time.

THE MOUNTAIN LIFTED OVER THEM
Talmud Shabbat 88a.

ויתיצבו בתחתית ההר, אמר רב אבדימי בר חמא בר חסא: מלמד שכפה הקדוש ברוך הוא עליהם את ההר כגיגית, ואמר להם: אם אתם מקבלים התורה ־ מוטב, ואם לאו ־ שם תהא קבורתכם.
“They stood at the bottom of the mount”: Rav Avdimi bar Hama bar Hasa said, “It teaches that the Holy Blessed One made the mountain a domed roof over them and said to them, ‘If you accept the Torah, – good; but if not, there will be your grave.”

Targum Yonatan to Shmot 19:17
ואנפיק משה ית עמא לקדמות דיי מן משריתא ומן יד תליש מארי עלמא ית טוורא וזקפיה באוירא והוה זייג הי כאספקלריא ואתעתדו תחותי טוורא.
Mosheh brought the People out of the camp towards [or: to meet] the Eternal and immediately the Master of the Universe plucked up the mountain and stood it in the air and it was clear as glass and they stood under the mountain.

THE VOICE:
Shmot Rabbah 5:9

בוא וראה היאך הקול יוצא, אצל כל ישראל כל אחד ואחד לפי כחו, הזקנים לפי כחן, הבחורים לפי כחן, והקטנים לפי כחן, והיונקים לפי כחן, והנשים לפי כחן, ואף משה לפי כחו, שנאמר (שמות יט) משה ידבר והאלהים יעננו בקול, בקול שהיה יכול לסובלו
Come see how the Voice goes out, with all Israel each according to his [/her] power: the elders according to their power, the young men according to their power, the little ones according to their power, the sucklings according to their power and the women according to their power, and even Moses according to his power, as it is said (Exodus 19) “Mosheh would speak, and God would answer with a voice” – with a voice that he was able to bear.

Bemidbar Rabbah 14:3

כתיב (שמות יט) משה ידבר והאלהים יעננו בקול האלהים ידבר ומשה יעננו בקול אין כתיב כאן אלא משה ידבר והאלהים יעננו בקול בקולו של משה היה מדבר עמו
It is written “Mosheh would speak, and God would answer with a voice.” It doesn’t say “God would speak and Mosheh would answer with a voice,” but “Mosheh would speak, and God would answer with a voice” – with Mosheh’s voice God spoke with him.